Category Archives: ANZAC

ANZAC Day #Shorncliffe #Folkestone #FWW #WWI

The 25th April is the day Australia, New Zealand, as well as a few small Pacific Nations, commemorate their war dead. Originally the day was set aside to remember the dead of the ANZAC at Gallipoli but has since been expanded to include all Australian and New Zealand war dead. At cemeteries in countries where Australian and New Zealanders service personnel are buried, there are Dawn Services. I’m not sure if there has ever been a Dawn Service on ANZAC day at Shorncliffe.  Here are the 11 Australians listed by the Australian War Memorial as being buried at Shorncliffe, plus the three men on the New Zealand War Graves Register also interned at the Military Cemetery Shorncliffe.

Carl Christian Andersen, IMG_8408

John James Forrest-Dunlop.IMG_8404

Edward Thomas FroudIMG_8406

William Burns GemmellIMG_8402

Cecil Edwin Howard, Also known as C Paling. IMG_8413

George Melbourne. IMG_8399

John Richardson PooleIMG_8400

Edward RobinsonIMG_8403.JPG

Geoffrey Campbell ScarrIMG_8396

Albert Edward William WardIMG_8411

Robert William WilliamsIMG_8414

The three men on the New Zealand War Graves Project Register are:

Henry Stokes Richards

IMG_8395

Peter Joseph GormanIMG_8416

Robert liveseyIMG_8409

I will be there a little later than the time the mad dogs and Englishmen venture out.

 

Doughboys and The First World War Great British Cook Off #FWW #WW1

Doughboys, not sure when this recipe dates from, but it was cooked circa 1914-18

4oz flour

1/2 teaspoon baking powder

2oz shredded suet

pinch of salt

Mix with cold water into a dough                                                                                                             Divide into balls and drop into boiling water                                                                                             Boil for 15 minutes

They are really nice with jam

Bully Omelet

1 oz cornflour

3/4 teacup ofmilk

2 dried eggs

1/4 teaspoon ready made mustard

1/2 margarine

pepper and salt

oh 2 tablespoons bully beef

Soak the dried eggs for a couple of hours                                                                                             Mix cornflour with a little of the milk   into a paste                                                                                   Stir in the rest of the milk and the dired eggs                                                                                           Season and add the bully beef                                                                                                                 Melt the margarine in a frying pa                                                                                                          pour in the mixture and serve when the underside is brown

Blushing Bunny

2 oz margarine

1 cup cooked spaghetti

2 tablespoons flour

1 cup milk

2 eggs

1/2 can tomato soup 1/2 lb grated cheese

salt pepper mustard to taste

Melt the margarine in the top of a double saucepan.                                                                               Stir in the flour, add the milk, stir until thick and boiling                                                                           Add the speghetti and the soup, stir until pping hot                                                                                 Add 2 beaten eggs, Stir over boiling water for two minutes                                                          add the cheese, salt, pepper and mustard                                                                                                     When the cheese melts serve on hot toast.

Now from the trenches

Trench Pudding

Smash up Army biscuits with a bayonet.. In your canteen mix with water and some orange peel. Boil until it forms a paste. Serve with condensed milk.

The Winner in the First World War Great British Cook off goes to the following recipe.

Trench Mortar

Batter some Army biscuits into a fine dust with your entrenching tool. Mix with Plum and Apple jam to taste. Warm and serve. Follow with Army biscuits bathed in sizzling hot ham fat and spread with toasted cheese.

It just beats the hell out of egg on ronay any day:)

                                                                                                    

Poppies, to be reprinted

“Poppies from the Heart of Strathspey” will be reprinted. The book will be reprinted as it was published, warts and all, so it does contain one or two things that I would have edited, but that takes time and would add to the cost. The book will be available from

,The Bookmark
34 High Street
Grantown-on-Spey
Moray
PH26 3EH

01479 873433

or from myself

Still to work out the price. I think it may be £15.99 + p and p from the Bookmark,

or

or £20 from me including p + p to anywhere in the UK or £25 including p + p overseas

Price is due partly to the increased cost of a small print run, inflation, and I much rather you supported a small independent bookshop

So if you would like a copy, order before Monday 12 noon UK time.

#Fww WW1 Allenby’s Other Battle, Ok its a blog on Cholera in Egypt and Palestine

The agent of Cholera, Vibro cholerae had been discovered in 1883, (1) it was known that if Cholera took hold among Empire Soldiers in any future conflict in would decimate any army in the field. Victory in a future war depended more on an ability to defeat cholera than it did on numerical, firepower or tactical superiority by British Empire Forces in the Field. In 1915, Dr. Armand Ruffer, C.M.G., President of the Sanitary, Maritime and Quarantine Council of Egypt, Alexandria, sent the the following note to the various British Medical services.

Dr. Ruffer’s Views on Cholera

(Report begins) “The first point is that although, in many epidemics, cholera has been a water-borne disease, yet a severe epidemic may occur without any general infection of the water supply. This was clearly the case in the last epidemic in Alexandria.[107] Attention to the water supply, therefore, may not altogether prevent an epidemic. The second point is that the vibrio of cholera may be present in a virulent condition in people showing no, or very slight symptoms of cholera, e.g. people with slight diarrhœa, etc.

The segregation of actual cases of cholera, therefore, is not likely to be followed by any degree of success, because this measure would not touch carriers or mild cases, unless orders were given to consider as contacts all foreign foes, and all soldiers who have been in contact with them. This is clearly impossible.

There cannot be any reasonable doubt, therefore, that if the Turkish army becomes infected with cholera, the British Army will undoubtedly become infected also.

Undoubtedly inoculation is the cheapest and quickest way of protection of the troops, provided this process confers immunity against cholera.

It is very difficult to estimate accurately the protection given by inoculation against cholera. My impression from reading the literature on the subject is that: (1) The inoculations must be done at least twice. (2) The inoculations, if properly made, are harmless as a rule. (3) The inoculations confer a certain protection against cholera. I may add that I arrived at this opinion before the war, when the French editors, Messrs. Masson & Co., asked me to write the article “Cholera” for the French standard textbook on pathology. My opinion was therefore quite unprejudiced by the present circumstances.

The cholera inoculations were harmless as a rule; that is, they were not always harmless. Savas has[108] described certain cases of fulminating cholera amongst people inoculated during the progress of an epidemic. In my opinion, the people so affected were in the period of incubation when they were inoculated, and the operation gave an extra stimulus, so to speak, to the dormant vibrio. One knows that, experimentally, a small dose of toxin, given immediately after or before the inoculation of the microorganism producing the toxin, renders this microorganism more virulent.

The conclusion to be drawn is that inoculations should be carried out before cholera breaks out.

I am afraid I know of no certain facts to guide me in estimating the length of the period of immunity produced by inoculations. Judging by analogy, I should say that it is certainly not less than six months, that it, almost certainly, lasts for one year, and very probably lasts far longer.

I understand that 90,000 doses of cholera vaccine have been sent from London. I take it that the inoculation material has been standardised and its effects investigated, but, in any case, I consider that a few very carefully performed experiments should be undertaken at once in Egypt, in order to make sure of the exact method of administration to be adopted under present conditions.

Probably, a good deal may be done by the timely exhibition of drugs, such as phenacetin, etc., to mitigate the more or less unpleasant effects of preventive inoculation.

As I am on this subject, may I point out the necessity of establishing at the front a laboratory for the early diagnosis of cholera and of dysentery. Cholera has appeared in the last three wars in which[109] Turkey has been engaged, and therefore the chances of the peninsula of Gallipoli becoming infected are great. The early diagnosis of cases of cholera, especially when slight, is extremely difficult and often can be settled by bacteriological examination only.

There never has been a war without dysentery, and almost surely our troops will be infected in time, if they are not already infected. But whereas in previous wars the treatment of dysentery was not specific, the physician is now in possession of rapid methods of treatment, provided he can tell what kind of dysentery (bacillary or amœbic or mixed) he is dealing with.

This differential diagnosis is a hopeless task unless controlled at every step by microscopical and bacteriological examination.The French are keenly aware of this fact, so much so that they have sent, for that very purpose, three skilled bacteriologists, two of whom are former assistants at the Pasteur Institute, to the Gallipoli Peninsula” (Report ends).(2) Most soldiers were then inoculated.

There was an international agreement on the control of infectious diseases which remained in force through out the Great War and an Isolation Hospital was established at Alexandra.  Mecca was as now the major pilgrimage destination for Muslims and Cholera was thought to be rife both there and in Syria.(3)

Disater though threaten when there was an out brake in Sinai, Mentioned in  Fifty Second (Lowland Division) 1914-1919,(4) An RAMC Captain, RS Taylor, was out looking for the wounded on the 7th August 1916 after the Battle of Romani (4-5 August 1916). He did not find any wounded but he came across a very sick Trooper from the Auckland Mounted Rifles.(5). Taylor had the Trooper isolated and informed 52nd Divisional Head Quarters. All the cases of diarrhea were also isolated just in case they had cholera.  Cholera is a fear inducing disease and volunteers were called for. Four orderlies, most probably from 1/1st Lowland Field Ambulance, Captain Taylor’s unit, and a cook stepped up to the mark. Two officers were sent from the ANZAC Military Bacteriological Laboratory at Alexandria Colonel Martin, and Major Ferguson. They decided to establish local “diarrhoea camps” each with a temporary field laborator. All measures were taken to stop the spread of Cholera to the Suez Canal.(6) Thankfully they were successful. Over the next two weeks 28 cases were diagnosed, 16 were from the 10th ANZAC Mounted Division, 10 of whom from the 10th Light Horse. in all 7 soldiers died.occurred, with 7 deaths,The source of the infection was from a few wells in Katia a former Turkish encampment, and at Hod el Hassania. were the Turks had left some contaminated water barrels. The rapid response to the outbreak and the success of the measures undertaken were a remarkable achievement and saved Egypt from a repeat of the last cholera epidemic in the mid 1890s when thousands died.(5) The outbreak of cholorea was contained and over by the 23rd August 1916. There were two other outbreaks during the campaign, one at Aqaba in 1917, no imperial troops were in the area, and the other outside Tiberius almost entirely in the civilian population, one trooper caught the disease and died.

The victory of cholera has often been understated, but with out it there would have been no victory in Palestine, the death toll from the cholera could have been greater in the middle east than the number of deaths from Spanish Flu. as  a gauge of the success of the anti cholera precautions taken by Allenbys Medical Services, during the time the Desert Mounted Corps were operating in the Esdraelon Valley there were of 11,000 cases of sickness admitted to ambulances. Only one of these cases was cholera.(7)

Notes 1) Page 82 Surgeon, Scientist, Soldier: The Life and Times of Henry Wade                                       2) Page 49 Official History of the Australian medical Services                                                             3)Official History of the Australian medical Services                                                                                      4)P295                                                                                                                                                                 5)    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41911/41911-h/41911-h.htm#Page_106 The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Australian Army Medical Corps in Egypt, by James W. Barrett and Percival E. Deane                                            6)Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services, 1914–1918,Volume III – Special Problems and Services (1st edition, 1943)Author: Butler, Arthur Graham http://static.awm.gov.au/images/collection/pdf/RCDIG1069708–1-.PDF, p261                                                  7)History of the Great War Medical services, Vol 3, p482 Naval and Military Press reprint

Merry Christmas

No new blog this week do to events outwith my control, ie Christmas/New Year

I will be researching cholera in Sinai during 1916, the invasion of Palestine in 1917, and the Chinese contribution to the First World War.

Cholera in Sinai because both General Murry and Allenby had to fight two wars, one with men the other with medicine.

The invasion of Palestine, a long running exercise, I now have the two books Allenby used to plan the invasion.

The Chinese contribution, because I promised someone I would. The first First World War site I can remember visiting was Outram Road in Singapore. The Chinese contribution to the First World War is often just ignored, not forgotten, ignored. Sometimes things in front of our eyes are. If you have the time over the holidays visit the Imperial War Museum, it is closed 24th-26 inclusive but open other days. Have a look at the First World War exhibits. You will see something that the Chinese gave to the British Army nearly a hundred years ago. They are still used by the British Army today. I doubt if the vast majority of visitors to the museum know what “they” are, but most visitors will look at “them”.

My better half is working both Christmas and boxing day, so hopefully I will have the time.

Have a Merry, Happy, Peaceful Christmas, and may your God, gods, or source of inspiration, peace and love, be with you.

Allenby’s Other Battle.

. Medicine is often overlooked in general histories of the Great War. We hear about the battles, the home front, women, football, but rarely medicine and illness, the medical  exception being the Spanish Flu. Medicine can however tell us much more. It can confirm the Australians made it into Gaza during the second battle of Gaza. There was three cases of gonorrhea in Australian soldiers who took part in the battle. Gonorrhea is not easy to catch in the open desert, so it is a good indication that they were infected inside Gaza. As well as sexually transmitted diseases the soldiers of Allenby’s  Army faced another potential killer disease, malaria. Malaria in Egypt and latterly in Palestine had four origins. It was carried by some soldiers from India, a benign primary form was also was prevalent along the Canal, Before the advance into malaria also broke out in a limited scale and odd places in Sinai, and a malignant form of the disease in Palestine itself.

The Public Health department of Egypt had fitted out a railway car as a mobile biological laboratory which they placed at General Murray’s disposal for use in the Canal Zone in April 1915. the Egyptian Expeditionary Force,EEF-Allenby’s Army had to wait until April 1918 for mobile laboratories to be sent out from Britain. Meanwhile a pamphlet was dispatched to all Medical Officers with instructions on how to diagnose malaria and arrange suitable treatment and care for soldiers with the disease. A base laboratory was established at No.24 Stationary Hospital by Sir David Semple.  The Desert Mounted Corps also had an ANZAC Field laboratory, but for the rest of the EEF there was no way medical officers in the field  could quickly confirm a soldier was suffering from malaria or another similar illness. in February 1918 an RAMC Captain suggested the formation of Malaria Diagnostic Stations,MDS. Seven medical officers and sixteen orderlies were trained for a month from the third week in March 1918 and at the end of April 1918 these men had formed two  MDS units. Each unit could be carried in one general service wagon.

During the summer of 1918 Turkish prisoners and the Egyptian Labour Corps became particularly prone to malaria, Medical Units at the railheads were rapidly expanded, with laboratories at Ludd, Jerusalem, Deir-el-Belah, and Jaffa. Hospitals for prisoners of war were opened next to casualty clearing stations as well as at Deir-el-Belah, El Arish, and Kantara. The Egyptian Labour Corps was susceptible because it was they who were carrying out the anti -malaria work of draining marshes and diverting streams. Over two hundred man hours were spent from April 1918 on the various anti-malaria projects. Mosquito breeding areas were targeted wells were oiled, shell holes were filled and or oiled,  ponds and marshes were drained, reeds cleared as far as possible all breeding areas, mostly were stagnant water could accumulate were dealt with.  British forces were still being infected, but less and less. Malaria only finally being checked when the medical services insisted that only the bare minimum of troops could continue the pursuit and all others were to be withdrawn to healthy camp sites. An attempt was made to get the Australian stopped from wearing shorts-malaria being carried by mosquitoes, this was heavily resisted. The odd thing is evidence suggests, (2) that the troopers themselves were more afraid of malaria than they were of being wounded. More preventative measures were also used. Ronald Ross had discovered how malaria was transmitted from one infected person to people not infected Veils, nets creams and gloves were issued. Quinine however was not compulsory, doctors were not sure of its effectiveness, and was also in limited supply.

Dispite the anti malaria campaign and the counter measures, during the closing months of the war, the final pursuit by the EEF of the remains of the Turkish Army it was noted that there seemed to be a higher incidence of malaria cases in the Desert Mounted Corps. It is thought this is because the Desert Mounted Corps operated in the Esdraelon Valley. It was the failure of the second Transjordan attack, the so called second raid, meant that the bulk of the bulk of the mounted troops had no option but to remain in the valley. Summer temperatures in the southern half could reach higher than 120F, (I am to old to convert this to centigrade, but it is extremely hot.) To the north and after the end of summer, Damascus suffered a malignant outbreak of both malaria and the flue on the 6th October 1918, Malaria was carried into the city by troops of the Desert Mounted Corps, with 2,000 patients in the Barracks Hospital alone the resources of the RAMC were seriously strained. 4th Cavalry Division was also heavily infected, and was unable to continue the advance.The arrival of No.66 Casualty Clearing station and 96 class A(1) RAMC men from Kantara plus the Assistant Director of Medical Services help ease the situation. Allenby was left with only the 5th Cavalry who had spent just one night in the Jordan valley being able to continue the advance reaching Homes on the 16th October. Chaytor’s force also began to suffer after several days in the Jordanian valley. In just two months Chaytor had lost over 8,000 men to mainly malaria, this compares with 139 battle casualties since September. Two thirds of his starting force were now gone.

Footnote.

1) Class A men from the RAMC were being retrained in Kantara as infantrymen due to the manpower shortage.

2) Allenby’s Military Medicine p131

References,

Eran Dole, Allenby’s Military Medicine

Eran Dolev, Yigal Sheffy, and Haim Goren (Editors) Palestine and World War 1 Chapter 7.

Major General Sir WG Macpherson History of the Great War Medical Services Vol 3

IWW, WW1 will be continued, but not today.

From tonight 9 September 2014 I will be offline for a fortnight. For those who are not sure what a fortnight is, I am sorry your country decided to leave the Empire when they did, and/or, I am sorry your country did not join the Empire. After all we are so much better together. Which brings me to the reason for my being offline for the next two weeks. I am tied of it and need a break. If you can vote do.

Plenty of research to keep me busy. It is time I wrote something on those deservedly shot at dawn, (SAD). Time to study a bit for an MA/PHd, Book, or just because I enjoy it. Time for me. My research has always been free, i have found lost war graves, researched family histories, forgotten soldiers, and a probable mass grave of German IWW soldiers. Invited to a conference for post graduates. Is it only me who can see the irony here? I need a rest.

Iolaire, SAD, Richborough, Folkestone, and German War Guilt, can all wait-Look upon it as an early Christmas Truce.